Third U.S. Artillery Regiment
Third U.S. Artillery Regiment
A Unit of the American Civil War Association
The following information may initially seem a bit overwhelming to those who are new to Civil War reenacting, but fear not! A quick chat with an officer of the unit will help you decide on your preferred impression, and that will determine exactly which articles you will need for the proper uniform. You will also be given tips on procuring your uniform, and the availability of "loaner gear" if you need to dress the part while you're assembling your kit. The information below is extremely detailed and covers all possibilities. It's primary purpose is to serve as a definitive reference for members of the unit. Again, don't be intimidated by this stuff.
All uniforms worn by members of the Third U.S. Artillery Regiment will comply with the Revised Regulations of the Army of the United States, 1861, hereinafter referred to the “1861 Regulations.”
Commissioned Officers, Non-commissioned Officers, and Enlisted Men will wear dress, undress, or fatigue versions of the uniform-of-the-day as ordered by the Commanding Officer. All uniforms worn by members of the Third U.S. Artillery Regiment will bear the distinctive scarlet color, the insignia, and the detail that the historical artillery regiment wore during the Civil War, both in garrison at Fort Point and on the field of battle.
Uniforms For Commissioned Offices
All officers shall wear a frock-coat of dark blue cloth, the skirt to extend from two-thirds to three-fourths of the distance from the top of the hip to the bend of the knee; single-breasted for Captains and Lieutenants; double-breasted for all other grades.
For field-grade officers, two rows of buttons, seven in each row on the breast, placed at equal distances; collar and cuffs of the same color and material as the coat.
For company-grade officers, the same, except that there will be only one row of nine buttons on the breast, placed at equal distances.
A round (shell) jacket, according to pattern, of dark blue cloth, trimmed with scarlet, with Russian shoulder-knot, the prescribed insignia of rank to be worked in silver in the centre of the knot, may be worn on undress duty by officers of Light Artillery. Optionally, appropriate shoulder straps may be worn in place of a Russian shoulder-knot to indicate rank.
For Fatigue Duty
A frock-coat with rolled-down collar and shoulder straps on each shoulder, of scarlet cloth with border of ¼ inch gold bullion, to indicate rank.
For field-grade officers, double-breasted with two rows of five gilt or yellow-metal “A” Artillery buttons upon the breast and three small gilt or yellow-metal “A” Artillery buttons at the end of each sleeve.
For company-grade officers, single-breasted with one row of five gilt or yellow-metal “A” Artillery buttons upon the breast and three small gilt or yellow-metal “A” Artillery buttons at the end of each sleeve.
Officers of all ranks are permitted to wear a buff, white, or blue vest, with the small gilt or yellow-metal “A” Artillery buttons in a single row down the front of the vest.
For Enlisted Men
The uniform coat for all enlisted men, shall be a single-breasted frock of dark blue cloth, made without plaits, with a skirt extending one-half the distance from the top of the hip to the bend of the knee; one row of nine buttons on the breast, placed at equal distances; stand-up collar to rise no higher than to permit the chin to turn freely over it, to hook in front at the bottom and then to slope up and back-ward at an angle of thirty degrees on each side; cuffs pointed according to pattern, and to button with two small buttons at the under seam; collar and cuffs edged with a cord or welt of cloth as follows, to wit: Scarlet for Artillery or crimson for Ordnance and Hospital Stewards. On each shoulder a metallic scale according to pattern; narrow lining for skirt of the coat of the same color and material as the coat; pockets in the folds of the skirts with one button at each hip to range with the lowest buttons on the breast; no buttons at the ends of the pockets.
All Enlisted men of the Light Infantry shall wear a uniform shell jacket of dark blue cloth, with one row of twelve small buttons on the breast placed at equal distances; stand-up collar to rise no higher than to permit the chin to turn freely over it, to hook in front at the bottom, and to slope the same as the coat-collar; on the collar, each side, two blind button-holes of lace, three-eighths of an inch wide, one small button on the button-hole three and a half inches; top button and front ends of collar bound with lace three-eighths of an inch wide, an a strip of the same extending down the front and around the whole lower edge of the jacket; the back seam laced with the same, and on the cuff a point as the same shape as that on the coat, but formed of the lace; jacket to extend to the waist and to be lined with white flannel; two small buttons at the under seam of the cuff, as on the coat cuff; one hook and eye at the bottom of the collar; color of lace (worsted) scarlet for Light Artillery.
For Fatigue Purposes.
A sack coat of dark blue flannel extending half-way down the thigh, and made loose, falling collar, inside pocket on the left side, four coat buttons down the front.
For Officers of the Ordnance Department—gilt, convex, plain border, cross cannon and bombshell, with a circular scroll over and across the cannon, containing the words, “Ordnance Corps;” large size, seven-eighths of an inch in exterior diameter; small size, one-half inch.
For Officers of Artillery—gilt, convex; device, a spread eagle with the letter “A” for Artillery, on the shield; large size, seven-eighths of an inch in exterior diameter; small size, one-half inch.
For Enlisted men—yellow metal, the same as is used by the Artillery, omitting the letter in the shield.
For all Regimental Officers—dark blue cloth, with a welt let into the outer seam, one-eighth of an inch in diameter of colors corresponding to the facings of the regiment, viz.: Artillery, scarlet.
For Enlisted Men in companies of Artillery equipped as Light Artillery—sky-blue cloth; sergeants with a scarlet stripe one and one-half inch wide; corporals with a stripe one-half inch wide of scarlet worsted lace, down and over the outer seam. All trousers to be made loose, without plaits, and to spread well over the boot; to be re-enforced for all enlisted mounted men.
N.B.: The 1861 Regulations originally specified that Enlisted Men wear trousers of “dark-blue cloth” but this was amended on December 16, 1861 to authorize “sky-blue.” Accordingly, many who had already been issued uniforms when the amendment was circulated in 1862 had already procured dark-blue trousers, which they continued to wear until their next uniform issue caught up with the color change late in 1862. The 3rd U.S. Artillery Regiment reenacting unit therefore allows both colors: dark-blue for early-war (1861-1862) reenactments at Fort Point, and sky-blue for late-war (1863-1865) reenactments that take place at venues outside Fort Point.
For Officers—of the best black felt. The dimensions of medium size to be as follows:
Width of brim, 3 ½ inches.
Height of crown, 6 ¼ inches.
Oval of tip, ½ inch.
Taper of crown, ¾ inch.
Curve of head, 3/8 inch.
The binding to be ½ inch deep, of the best black ribbed silk (1476).
For Enlisted Men—of black felt, same shape and size as for officers, with double row of stitching, instead of binding, around the edge. To agree in quality with the pattern deposited in the clothing arsenal.
For Officers of Artillery—red and gold cord, with acorn-shaped ends; an ornament in front, with gold-embroidered cross-cannon, on black velvet ground, with the number of the regiment in silver at the intersection of the cross-cannon.
For Enlisted Men of Light Artillery—the insignia in brass, in front of the hat, corresponding with those prescribed for officers, with the number of the regiment, five-eighths of an inch long, in brass, and letter of company, one inch, in brass, arranged over insignia.
For Hospital Stewards the cord will be of buff and green mixed. The wreath in front of brass, with the letters U.S. in Roman, of white metal.
Forage Caps and Kepis.
For fatigue purposes, forage caps or kepis, of pattern in the Quartermaster General’s office: dark blue cloth, with a welt of the same around the crown, and yellow metal letters in front to designate regiment and battery.
Commissioned officers may wear forage caps or kepis of the same pattern, with the distinctive ornament of the regiment in front and knots and braids indicating rank embroidered in black thread upon the crown.
For all Officers and Enlisted Men—brogans or Jefferson, according to pattern.
For Officers of Artillery, white. For Enlisted Men, buff, brown, or black leather.
For Officers of Artillery, crimson silk net. For Surgeons and Assistant Surgeons, green. For all Sergeant Majors, Quartermaster Sergeants, Ordnance Sergeants, Hospital Stewards, First Sergeants, Principal or Chief Musicians and Chief Buglers—red worsted sash, with worsted bullion fringe ends; to go twice around the waist, and to tie behind the left hip, pendent part not to extend more than eighteen inches below the tie.
For all Officers—a waist-belt not less than one and one-half inch nor more than two inches wide to be worn over the sash; the sword to be suspended from it by slings of the same material as the belt, with a hook attached to the belt upon which the sword may be hung.
For all Commissioned and Non-commissioned Officers—black leather, plain.
For all Officers and Enlisted Men—gilt, rectangular, two inches wide, with a raised bright rim; a silver wreath of laurel encircling the “Arms of the United States;” eagle, shield, scroll, edge of cloud and rays bright. The motto, “E Pluribus Unum,” in silver letters, upon the scroll; stars also of silver; according to pattern.
Sword and Scabbard.
For Artillery Officers—the sword of the pattern adopted by the War Department, April 9, 1850.
The sword and sword-belt will be worn upon all occasions of duty, without exception. When on foot, the sabre will be suspended from the hook attached to the belt. When not on military duty, officers may wear swords of honor, or the prescribed sword, with a scabbard, gilt, or of leather with gilt mountings.
For Officers, gold lace strap with gold bullion tassel.
Badges to Distinguish Rank.
Regimental Artillery Officers may wear epaulettes on their dress uniform with the number of the regiment embroidered in gold, within a circlet of embroidered silver, one and three-fourths inches in diameter, upon cloth of scarlet.
The Shoulder Straps of Artillery Officers shall be of scarlet cloth with a ¼ inch border of gold bullion and the rank insignia of the officer. The shoulder-strap will be worn whenever the epaulette is not.
The rank of non-commissioned officers will be marked by chevrons upon both sleeves of the uniform coat and overcoat, above the elbow, of silk or worsted binding one-half an inch wide, same color (scarlet) as the edging on the coat, points down, as follows:
For a Sergeant Major—three chevrons and three arcs, in silk.
For a Quartermaster Sergeant—three chevrons and three horizontal bars, in silk.
For an Ordnance Sergeant—three chevrons and a star, in silk.
For a Hospital Steward—a half chevron of the following description,--viz.: of emerald green cloth, one and three-fourths inches wide, running obliquely downward from the outer to the inner seam of the sleeve, and at an angle of about thirty degrees with a horizontal, parallel to, and one-eighth of an inch distant from, both the upper and lower edge, an embroidery of yellow silk one-eighth of an inch wide, and in the centre a “caduceus” two inches long, embroidered also with yellow silk, the head toward the outer seam of the sleeve.
For a First Sergeant—three chevrons and a lozenge, in worsted.
For a Sergeant—three chevrons, in worsted.
For a Corporal—two chevrons, in worsted.
For Commissioned Officers.
A “cloak coat” of dark blue cloth, closing by means of two rows of five gilt or yellow-metal buttons each, equally spaced down the breast, or by means of four frog buttons of black silk and loops of black silk cord down the breast, and at the throat by a long loop à échelle, without tassel or plate, on the left side, and a black silk frog button on the right; cord for the loops fifteen-hundredths of an inch in diameter; back, a single piece, slit up from the bottom from fifteen to seventeen inches, according to the height of the wearer, and closing at will, by buttons, and button-holes cut in a concealed flap; collar of the same color and material as the coat rounded at the edges, and to stand or fall; when standing, to be about five inches high; sleeves loose, of a single piece, and round at the bottom, without cuff or slit; lining, woolen; around the front and lower border, the edges of the pockets, the edges of the sleeves, collar, and slit in the back, a flat braid of black silk one-half an inch wide; and around each frog button on the breast, a knot two and one-quarter inches of black silk cord, seven-hundredths of an inch in diameter, arranged according to drawing; cape of the same color and material as the coat removable at the pleasure of the wearer and reaching to the cuff of the coat-sleeve when the arm is extended; coat to extend down the leg from six to eight inches below the knee, according to height. To indicate rank, there will be on both sleeves, near the lower edge, a knot of flat black silk braid not exceeding one-eighth of an inch in width, arranged according to drawing, and composes as follows:
For a General—of five braids, double knot.
For a Colonel—of five braids, single knot.
For a Lieutenant-Colonel—of four braids, single knot.
For a Major—of three braids, single knot.
For a Captain—of two braids, single knot.
For a First Lieutenant—of one braid, single knot.
For a Second Lieutenant—a plain sleeve, without knot or ornament
For Enlisted Men.
A coat of sky-blue cloth; stand-up collar; single-breasted; cape to reach down to the elbows when the arm is extended, and to button all the way up; buttons.
Unit-specific Uniform Rules
As the unit strives for authenticity in the impressions presented by the reenactors, personal flourishes, additions, or variations from the 1861 Regulations are not permitted without the express permission of the Commanding Officer. The only exception being the wearing of authorized medals suspended from ribbons indicating membership in the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War, which are to be worn only on the dress uniform.